How RADAR Works
will find more technical information available than you will ever
need in a radar case. Unless you are a radar technical expert, any
attempts to put on a radar
defense will fail you. The kourt will ask
you if you are a kourt recognized radar expert. If you are not, you
will NOT be allowed to proceed with a technical defense. Even if you
have a degree in electronics or microwave, you will not be allowed
to proceed if you are not a kourt recognized radar expert. If you
bring a recognized radar expert to kourt, the kourt will ask for a
delay in the trial to bring in their own experts.
system does NOT rely on “any” technical defenses for
radar, rather legal errors of Georgia law instead. Legal errors of
law, breaking the chain of evidence, and or proving the officer did
NOT properly test the unit in accordance with
is the only way to win in Georgia
kangaroo traffic kourts.
one can never be armed with to much ammunition, (in this case
knowledge) when going into battle in a Georgia Kangaroo kourt.
Knowing in detail how RADAR works may allay
some fears in defending against it, or simply satisfy certain
is an explanation of Police Radar. It explains Police radar and its
operation and theory.
Police radar is a Doppler radar. It measures speed similar to the
way astronomers measure the velocity and distance of stars. The radar antenna emits a beam in the radio
frequency range. The beam bounces off the target, and then returns
to the police radar antenna. The velocity of the target will change
the frequency of the radar signal. That change in frequency is
interpreted by the radar unit and shown to the officer as the
order for the officer to make a successful speeding case, he needs
to establish the following:
Venue (or jurisdiction)
Date and time of the offence
Roadway on which the offence occurred
the vehicle and the operator
often helpful for the officer to include other information such as
weather and traffic conditions,
and any statements made by
officer testimony will typically be something like this:
On 10 November 2002
at about 8:36am, I was operating stationary radar on Highway 1 near Main
Street, in the city of Hiram, Georgia. The area is posted as a 45
mile per hour zone. I noticed a red Saturn SL1 traveling east on
Highway 1 at a high rate of speed. I activated my radar. It gave a
high-pitched clear tone, and it indicated a speed of 62 miles per
hour. I stopped the Saturn and made contact with the driver, Ms.
law requires additional information, such as the calibration
information on the radar, the officer's certification to operate the
radar, and the cities valid speed detection device permit.
The most important part of a radar case is a tracking history. The
radar unit will display a number, and that's all. It doesn't tell
the officer which vehicle it is, or if there's even a vehicle there.
The officer has to track the vehicle to make sure that his
observations match what the radar is showing him. Otherwise, the
officer might stop the wrong vehicle or a common radar error might
give an incorrect speed. In some cases, the officer will testify to
visually estimating the violator's speed to within 5 miles per hour.
$peedingTICKETKILLER system has a trial tested KILLER defense for this
officers’ visual estimate of your speed (using relevant Georgia case
law) that will make him/her look like an absolute idiot on the
The radar beam is a cone. It does not pick out individual vehicles.
It cannot even pick out individual lanes. The radar shows a speed
based on three factors.
This is generally referred to as biggest, closest, and fastest. The
radar usually picks up the target that is the largest in its view.
Therefore, it might pick up a motorcycle that was very close to it
before a tractor-trailer a mile down the road. Many times the radar
will display different speeds of different vehicles that are close
together. The officer has to determine if he is getting a good
reading and if so, which vehicles' speed is being displayed.
This isn't as hard as it might sound. Radars are equipped with a
speaker which give a tone reflecting the Doppler signal its
receiving. If it's a clear high pitched tone, then it's getting a
good solid reading from a vehicle. It will give a low raspy tone if
it's not getting a clear signal. This happens when there is
something in between the radar and the target or when the vehicle is
entering or leaving the beam.
Once you have a solid tone, you look at how the traffic is moving.
If there is a clump of vehicles that is moving at 65mph then a
vehicle overtakes them at a high rate of speed, and the radar shows
85mph, it's easy to figure out who was going that fast.
Alternatively, if a group of vehicles is traveling together in a
clump, where no one is overtaking or falling behind, all the
vehicles in that clump will be at about the same speed.
Some radars have a fastest vehicle button that will display the
fastest vehicle in its cone. This is very useful for when there are
large targets such as tractor-trailers in between the radar and a
fast moving small vehicle.
Modes of Radar
Stationary radar is radar at its simplest. The officer sits on the
side of the road, and watches traffic. When he observes a vehicle
moving at high speed, he activates the radar.
The radar goes through its basic decision factors (Reflectivity,
Position, and Speed) then it displays that speed. The radar will
give a tone. If the tone is clear and the displayed speed matches
the officer visual observations, the officer can make the stop.
Moving radar is very similar stationary radar, but it is looking for
two different speeds. The radar looks for the largest object in its
field, and it assumes that this is the passing background. Then it
looks for the second most significant object that it assumes is the
target. The radar actually measures the closing speed or separation
speed between the target and the patrol vehicle. The radar's
counting unit will then use the following formulas.
(TS) = Closing Speed (CS) - Patrol Speed (PS)
Target Speed (TS) = Separation Speed (CS) - Patrol Speed (PS)
The radar unit will then display two speeds. It will show the target
speed and the patrol speed. The officer
compare the patrol speed displayed on the radar with that displayed
on the car's speedometer. This is an essential element of the radar
case. The radar speed will be more accurate, but there are certain
errors that this will detect. The speeds must be consistent.
Same direction radar was developed when engineers were examining the
shadowing error. Same direction radar uses very different logic than
either moving or stationary radar. It also requires more a
complicated tracking history.
Basically, it figures out the patrol speed. Then it looks for the
bounced reflection off the other vehicle and measures the relative
speed between them. This makes things more complicated because the
officer must decide to activate the radar, let the radar know if the
officer or the target is moving faster.
There are several things that will affect a police radar unit. There
is a famous example of a lawyer aiming a Radar at the courtroom wall
and clocking it at 19 miles per hour. Radars will pick up
interference from things other than vehicles. Power lines and the
patrol car's air conditioner are the most common things that a Radar
will register. This is why training and experience is important.
Officers will learn where the power lines are, and how the radar
will react to them.
Police radar uses part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Any number
of electromagnetic and physical phenomena can influence them. Air
conditioning units in patrol cars can create a reading (generally 30
mph). Some high power lines can also set off radars (generally
around either 90 mph or 100 mph).
Officers must have a good tracking history in order to confirm that
his observations are matched by the speed displayed by the radar. If
an officer is traveling along a road with a 35 mph limit, and sees a
vehicle traveling at around 50 mph, and the radar displays 100 mph,
he knows that the result is bogus. An officer should know his beat
well enough that he's aware of the common sources of interferences.
Some forms of interference, such as the air conditioning units, will
disappear when the radar detects an actual moving object. Its
decision factors will ignore any signal as weak from the air
Cosine error is when the radar antenna is at an angle to the
target. Instead of coming straight towards the antenna, the target
is moving across the beam. Some of the speed is lost.
Basically, this means that if an officer is sitting at an angle to
the flow of traffic, the speed indicated will always be lower than
the actual speed of the target.
stationary mode, it is always to the advantage of the violator.
In moving mode, a cosine error can reduce the computed speed of the
patrol vehicle. So when the counting unit computes the target speed
with CS-PS=TS, the target speed will be higher than it should be. To
counteract this, the officer needs to check his speedometer against
patrol speed displayed by the radar.
mode, it is always to the disadvantage of the violator and something
you need to consider if targeted with MOVING radar.
Masking is a rarely observed error where the radar antenna is
pointed at the counting unit (the part of the radar that shows the
Shadowing is when an officer is behind another moving object.
Usually it will be something large like a tractor-trailer. The radar
will interpret the tractor-trailer as the background instead of the
actual background. Therefore, when an officer is running moving
radar, he has to check the patrol speed showed by the radar unit
against his speedometer. If they don't match then he may have a
Batching is when an officer is accelerating and activates the radar.
Most modern radars have internal error checking that prevents this
from being an issue.
Scanning is when you swing a radar antenna across a background. It's
possible to get the radar to show a speed this way, but it is hard.
Other Potential Issues with Radar
An officer must be trained to operate Radar in the state of Georgia.
It will be an element of the case that the officer will make in
court. Asking the officer for this permit on the side of the road is
a waste of time. It does not take much to figure out how the radar
works, but it does take some training and experience.
Two Officer Teams
On some occasions, officers will act in teams. One officer will
operate the speed detection equipment, and another officer will
issue citations. This is particularly common in the state of Georgia.
In order to obtain a conviction, the officer who identifies the
violation must be in court to identify the violation. The officer
who issues the citation must come to court to identify the driver.
The officers must also be able to say how they were to pass the
information about the violation between them.
law (we teach you this in our system) pertinently requires that when
an officer makes a traffic case based on information received from
another officer, both officers MUST appear in court. In these
scenarios, they rarely do, because they know you are ignorant of
this and can beat you with just one officer.
(this is where most RADAR cases can be killed)
Radars “MUST” be checked for accuracy
daily. The results of these tests must be recorded and maintained.
law, the officer has to check it at the beginning and end of each
shift. The check for accuracy consists of the following:
A light check.
The officer presses a button on the radar, and all the LED lights
circuit check, which is accomplished by pressing a button on the
check. Tuning forks that are tuned to vibrate at a certain
frequency are put in front of the radar antenna. The radar unit
will display a certain speed.
If the radar does not perform within the manufacturer’s
specifications, it has to be removed from service until the Radar
can be repaired.
Specially trained technicians MUST calibrate Radars every 12 months
in Georgia, and they MUST have this proof in kourt at the time of
your trial in order to win. Many times, they do not, but because
most defendants do NOT know this, or how to object to this, they
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